In France, according to the latest figures known from INSEE, one in six people suffers from a disability, or 12 million French people. The objective announced by successive governments has always been to improve the management of disability. The law of February 11, 2005 for equal rights and opportunities, participation and citizenship of people with disabilities has promoted equal access to all public service and establishments open to the public.
In Article 2, the law provides that ” t ny disabled person is entitled to the solidarity of the entire national community, which guarantees under this obligation, access to fundamental rights for all citizens so that the full exercise of its citizenship ”. However, accessibility is still far from equal for all. In 2015, only 15% of public establishments met standards.
Disability, legal definition
Article 2 of the law of February 11, 2005 gives a fairly precise definition of disability in all its forms. Thus, “constitutes a handicap, any limitation of activity or restriction of participation in life in society suffered in his environment by a person due to a substantial, lasting or definitive impairment of one or more physical, sensory, mental functions. , cognitive or psychological, of a multiple handicap or of a disabling health disorder ”.
There are, according to the WHO (World Health Organization) and the CIH (International Classification of Disabilities), five categories of disabilities:
- Motor disability. It can be the consequence of a paralysis, an amputation, a myopathy….
- Sensory handicap. It affects sight (blindness, low vision, etc.) or hearing (deafness)
- Psychic handicap. These are diseases that disturb the personality. For example: schizophrenia, bipolar diseases …
- Mental disability consists of intellectual disabilities. It can be a trisomy 21, a form of autism, a multiple handicap …
- Disabling diseases. We can cite epilepsy or multiple sclerosis